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Presidential Elections in Argentina - 1983

In 1983, after 7 long years of a military dictatorship, Argentina finally was able to elect a president via democratic elections, in what is now known locally as "Return to Democracy".

Historical Context

From 1930 to 1983, Argentina was under a constant cycle of military coups and democratic elected presidents. The most important president of this period was Juan D. Perón, elected in 1946 and again in 1952. He was overthrown in a coup in 1955, and every coup since, had an objective of annihilating left-wing Peronists, communists and every person associated with this movement.

In 1976, the military coup ("Proceso de Reorganización Nacional", which translates to National Reorganizing Process) took over power, and started a process in which the police, the military and other organisms that belonged to the State, persecuted the population looking for Peronists and Communists. After seven years, the "Junta Militar" lost power and had to call to elections.

In 1983, when the first democratic elections were held (the last one had been in 1974, in which Perón was elected a third time), the Radical party was elected and Raúl Alfonsín became the first president in our young democracy.

Why is it interesting?

In Argentina, the 1976 coup is an open wound of which we are still recovering. We are a very political country, and we remember every election and its consequences. We see this election as a breath of fresh air, lots of people were eager to vote, and many people remember this moment as very significant and hopeful.

It is interesting to see how the population behaved in this particular election. How did the Peronist party do in this election? Did everybody vote the Radicals? Was it a landslide? Was it tight? How many more political parties were involved?

Source, tools and techniques

This dataset was downloaded from the Ministry of Internal Affairs' website.. I will use pandas and numpy to perform data cleaning and analysis, while also using matplotlib and seaborn to show graphs with the analysed information. This work was made for the Zero To Pandas course, where I learnt and practiced using these libraries.

In [1]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from urllib.request import urlretrieve
from PIL import Image
import seaborn as sns
import os
In [2]:
urlretrieve('https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-P4Ok_UPSnzs/VjOiLfhhPBI/AAAAAAAAHFE/e0lpHi0TbwE/s1600/elecciones_diario_tiempo.jpg', 'newspaper.jpg');
newspaper = Image.open('newspaper.jpg')
plt.figure(figsize=(20, 10))
plt.grid(False)
plt.title('Newspaper from 1983')
plt.axis('off')
plt.imshow(newspaper);
Notebook Image
In [3]:
urlretrieve('https://www.mapas-del-mundo.net/mapas/america-del-sur/argentina/grande-mapa-politico-y-administrativo-de-argentina-con-principales-ciudades-small.jpg', 'argentina.jpg');

mapa = Image.open('argentina.jpg')
plt.figure(figsize=(20, 10))
plt.grid(False)
plt.title('Argentina')
plt.axis('off')
plt.imshow(mapa);